Preparation for diagnostic procedures
General rules for preparing for an ultrasound:
In order to get the most complete information about the state of the organs, it is necessary to carefully follow all the recommendations that your local doctor recommends. Gastrointestinal tract, a large degree of obesity, an open wound and a bandage in the study area can interfere with ultrasound and distort its results , as well as high patient activity during ongoing studies. To relieve the accumulation of gases in the intestines (in preparation for studies of the spleen, gall bladder and pancreas) 3 to 4 days before the appointment the study should be excluded from the diet of raw vegetables, fiber-rich; fruits; legumes; black bread; whole milk; drinks with gas; high-calorie confectionery. If the child is prone to increased gas formation, it is recommended to take activated charcoal, festa, mezim-forte, espumisan, etc. If the child receives any medications at the time of research, it is necessary to notify the doctor conducting the research. p>
An abdominal ultrasound is performed on an empty stomach, so you should refrain from eating 8-12 hours before the procedure.
When preparing for an abdominal ultrasound in infants, you can feed the baby in the usual way, and you need to come with an ultrasound calculation to come to him 3 hours after the last meal. If the baby is fed not milk, but milk mixture, the interval should be 3.5 hours, as the artificial mixture is absorbed longer. It is advisable to refuse vegetable and fruit mixtures. If necessary, the baby can be milked with clean drinking water (no sugar!). Any kind of tea is not allowed.
Preparing for an ultrasound of the kidneys: With normal weight, preparing for an ultrasound of the kidneys is not required. Overweight and increased gas formation in the intestine make it difficult to perform ultrasound diagnostics, and in these cases, the same preparation for ultrasound of the kidneys as for the study of abdominal organs is recommended.
Preparation for ultrasound of the adrenal glands: 3 days before the study, a non-slag diet is prescribed, excluding products of animal origin. You can eat cereals, legumes, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, brown bread or cereal bread, pasta from wholemeal flour, from sweets - honey and dried fruits, from drinks - herbal teas and natural (non-store) juices . On the morning of the ultrasound, you need to take a laxative (as prescribed by the doctor). The study of the adrenal glands is performed on an empty stomach. Breast babies can simply be brought to the procedure 3–3.5 hours after the last feeding.
Preparation for ultrasound of the bladder: Ultrasound diagnosis of the bladder is performed with a full bladder. When preparing for an ultrasound of the bladder, it is important to drink 200 to 800 ml of non-carbonated liquid 30–40 minutes before the examination, so that the doctor receives a clear image on the monitor. Such a spread in numbers is caused by the fact that each organism has individual characteristics, and the optimal amount of fluid is determined experimentally. If it is difficult for a small patient to drink a large amount of water at once, you can start drinking 1–1.5 hours before the ultrasound session and do it in small portions. Ideally, the child at the time of the ultrasound should feel pronounced urge to urinate.
Preparation for an ultrasound of the bladder with determination of the volume of residual urine is carried out in two stages: first, a classic ultrasound of the bladder is performed, then the child is asked to visit the toilet, and then the study is repeated, paying attention to how much urine remains in the bladder, that is, whether it is fully emptied.
Preparation for an ultrasound of the bladder in a nursing infant will need to be fed or watered 15–20 minutes before the procedure begins.
Preparation for an ultrasound of the thyroid gland: When preparing for an ultrasound of the thyroid gland, you only need to find out and tell the diagnostic doctor the weight and height of the child at the time of the study. To prevent a gag reflex, you can bring a small patient on an empty stomach.
Preparation for pelvic ultrasound for boys: ultrasound of the scrotum in boys does not require preparation, it is enough to perform normal hygienic care of the external genital organs before the procedure.
On an ultrasound of the prostate gland you need to come with a full bladder. The preparation for this study is carried out according to the same scheme as the preparation for ultrasound of the bladder (see above).
Preparation for pelvic ultrasound for girls: ultrasound of the uterus and appendages in girls is performed with a full bladder. Preparation is the same as preparation for an ultrasound of the bladder (see above).
Preparation of a newborn for a screening ultrasound in 1–1.5 months: A scheduled screening ultrasound is prescribed for each baby aged 1–1.5 months and without fail includes an ultrasound of the brain (neurosonography), kidneys, and hip joints. All three ultrasounds can be performed in one session. Preparation is not needed. & Nbsp; If necessary, an additional ultrasound of the thymus gland (thymus), heart and abdominal organs is performed. It is not necessary to prepare for the first two studies, and for ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, it is necessary to maintain a 3–3.5 hour interval after the last feeding (strictly with breast milk or milk mixture). Again, you can feed the baby immediately after the ultrasound.
Rules for preparing patients for laboratory tests
All blood tests are taken before radiography, ultrasound and physiotherapy procedures.
If the patient is dizzy or weak, warn the procedural sister about this - they will take your blood while lying down.
· A general blood test, blood type, Rh factor, and biochemical tests should be taken on an empty stomach, no less than 12 hours after the last meal.
· 1-2 days before the examination, exclude fatty, fried from the diet.
· On the eve of the examination, have a light dinner and a good rest.
· On the day of the examination - You can’t have breakfast (including the use of tea, coffee or juice), exclude physical activity, taking medications abstain from smoking.
· If you experience difficulties with drug withdrawal, you must definitely coordinate with your doctor.
· Drinking water does not affect blood counts, so you can drink water.
· We recommend all take tests in the morning, due to the fact that blood counts change significantly during the day and the standards are calculated for this period of the day.
Fecal collection rules for research.
Feces are collected in a separate container without special preparation. Feces are collected from different areas of feces no more than a tablespoon. Do not mix feces with urine. Observe this condition for any stool examination.
Rules for collecting urine for research according to the Nechiporenko method.
· Before collecting urine, you must have a thorough toilet of the external genitalia with soap.
· An average portion of morning urine is collected for research. The first portion is discharged into the toilet, the middle into the urine collection container, the last into the toilet.
· Urine is delivered to the laboratory within 1 to 2 hours. Do not store the sample in heat or cold. It is advisable to write the name on the container with urine.
Urine collection rules for general analysis.
· For a general analysis of urine, it is better to take the first morning portion, as it is the most informative.
· Before collecting urine, a thorough toilet of the external genitals is carried out with soap.
· The urine is collected in a clean bowl, mixed thoroughly. , then it is poured 20-50 ml into a container for transportation and, as soon as possible, within 1-2 hours, is delivered to the laboratory.
Rules for collecting daily urine for oxalates, protein, etc.
· Urine is collected within 24 hours, observing the normal drinking regimen.
· To do this, prepare a clean container with a wide neck and a lid, with a volume of at least three liters.
· The first morning urine is discharged into the toilet . All subsequent servings are collected in a small container and poured into a large one. The last portion is collected the next morning at the time the collection was started. All this time, the urine should be stored in the refrigerator.
· Then the entire volume of urine is accurately measured and recorded in the direction.
· After that, the urine is thoroughly mixed and poured into a shipping container of approximately 50 ml.
Rules for collecting urine in Zimnitsky.
· Urine is collected during the day from 6 a.m. to 6 a.m. the next day in 8 glass urine collection containers. Labels with the time of urine collection are attached to each of them.
· One day before the collection, diuretics are stopped (after preliminary consultation with the attending physician).
· At 6 a.m., urinate in the toilet, then the whole urine is collected in separate containers for every 3 hours: from 6 to 9 hours; from 9 to 12 hours; from 12 to 15 hours; from 15 to 18 hours; from 18 to 21 hours; from 21 to 24 hours; from 24 to 3 hours; from 3 to 6 hours.
· If the volume of the main container is not enough, then you need to take additional dishes and the corresponding time period is indicated on this additional container.
· If there was no urine in the 3-hour period, then the appropriate container remains empty, but is delivered to the laboratory.
· During collection, normal water and drinking conditions are observed. The amount of fluid taken is taken into account: water, tea, coffee, first courses, as well as intravenous infusions. This quantity must be reported to the on-site nurse and recorded in the analysis form.
· The urine collected is stored in a dark, cool place.
· The collected urine is delivered to the laboratory on the morning of the end day.
Rules for taking scrapings for enterobiosis.
Scraping for enterobiosis from the surface of the perianal folds in the anus is performed in the clinic. In the morning, it is advisable not to wash the child, even after the act of deformation.